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Mean observed scrape depth approximately equaled that which minimized convective cooling while minimizing conductive heat loss.
Further, on average, Pectoral Sandpipers used approximately the lining depth that minimized conductive heat loss while minimizing material useage.
Pectoral Sandpipers did not use lining materials in proportions that reflected local availability.
Instead, relative use was correlated with a material's insulative quality when wet.
Hartman and Oring (2003) studied the importance of nest orientation to nest microclimate in Horned Larks in California.
Nests showed a significant northern bias in orientation angle and were 49% shaded in the early afternoon, the hottest part of the day.
Are wader nest scrapes adaptively designed to minimize clutch cooling rate?
- Arboreal avian nests likely function partly to insulate clutches.
Evidence of tunnel coalescence and communal nesting was found in a completely evacuated colony of 30 tunnels.
The use of both an unlined scrape and of lining material reduced the rate at which a test object lost heat.
Constructing a lined scrape is therefore likely to serve to insulate a clutch.
Bird mites can be divided into those that dwell primarily in, or near, the nest and those that reside mainly on the body of the host.
The best studied nest-dwelling mites are blood feeders from the genera Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus (shown here is a micrograph of a female Ornithonyssus bursa, a common nest parasite of passerines. Micrograph from Dave Walter, University of Queensland).