Endometrial dating images

These estrogen-induced changes occur as a response to the binding of the hormone to nuclear receptors.The presence of estrogen receptors in the nuclei of endometrial cells is responsible for the prompt translation of hormonal impulses into structural changes, including, at an ultrastructural level, protein synthesis by free ribosomes and by the rough endoplasmic reticulum and accumulation of intermediate filaments, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes.Before puberty, the endometrial tissue is inactive; it is composed of tubular glands, a dense fibroblastic stroma, and thin blood vessels.The advent of cyclic pituitary and ovarian hormonal activity results in endometrial cyclic morphologic changes involving glands, stroma, and blood vessels that can be identified as characteristic for each day of the cycle.

Departments of Pathology and Obstetrics-Gynecology and Reproductive Science, The Mount Sinai-NYU Medical Center, New York, New York Hormone therapy is widely used throughout the world by women of all ages for a variety of reasons, ranging from oral contraception and ovulation stimulation for family planning to hormone replacement therapy in menopause, to adjuvant therapy of tumors of the breast and uterus.The physiologic changes of the endometrium during reproductive life and after menopause reflect the influence of ovarian-secreted steroid sex hormones and of their withdrawal.Hormone manipulation in fertility problems and hormonal substitution therapy result in histologic patterns that do not fit the classical descriptions of the cyclic and involutional changes of the endometrium.The histologic patterns of the endometrium associated with hormone therapy vary with the dosage, duration of therapy, and individual hormone receptor activity.The same endometrium may display a number of changes under different conditions, resulting in a diversity of histologic patterns that may render some endometrial biopsies difficult to interpret.

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