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Greece made the change for civil purposes on 16 February/1 March 1923 - the national day (25 March), which was a religious holiday, was to remain on the old calendar.
Most Christian denominations in the west and areas evangelised by western churches have also replaced the Julian calendar with the Gregorian as the basis for their liturgical calendars.
This article is about a calendar used for civil and liturgical purposes.
For the day-number calendar used for astronomical and historical calculations, see Julian day. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC (AUC 709), by edict.
The Julian period or the Julian Day system provides astronomers with a single system of dates that could be used when working with different calendars to align different historical chronologies.
It assigns a Julian Day (JD) to every year without having to worry about B.
In the Julian calendar, every four years is a leap year, with a leap day added to the month of February.
In order to create a more standardized calendar, Julius Caesar consulted an Alexandrian astronomer named Sosigenes and created a more regulated civil calendar, a solar calendar based entirely on Earth's revolutions around the Sun, also called a tropical year.
It takes our planet on average, approximately 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45 seconds (365.242189 days) to complete one full orbit around the Sun.
Although Greek astronomers had known, at least since Hipparchus, a century before the Julian reform, that the tropical year was slightly shorter than 365.25 days, the calendar did not compensate for this difference.
As a result, the calendar year gains about three days every four centuries compared to observed equinox times and the seasons.